Chapter 19 Quiz:

Southwest Asia and the Indian Ocean, 1500 – 1750

1. In the near Middle East, Ottoman empire was a rising force since its founding in northwestern Anatolia by Osman, around 1300. A century and a half later they were controlling much of the south eastern Europe and taking Constantinople in 1453 ending what?

 
 
 

2. Much of the Ottoman empire power came from its centralization. The state was ruled by a sultan with the aid of a well-organized army, which, in the time of peace, performed administrative duties, like collecting taxes and maintaining order. People serving in the military were a class on itself and did not pay taxes. Who was consider part of the military class?

 

 
 
 

3. Janissaries were an ever evolving corps in the Ottoman army, from an infantry group to an elite who gained privileges and engaged in business and contributing to the financial burden of the state. It was dissolved in 1826. How did the ottoman state originally recruit the Janissaries?

 

 
 
 

4. The ottoman empire kept trying to conquer new territories which, in the west, opposed European states of Austria and Russia that were just raising to power. In 1683 the second siege of Vienna failed. It was obvious that this land-based empire was weakening. What were the reasons?

 
 
 

5. Safavid empire was established in Iran at the beginning of 16th century, by Ismail Safavi, who, at the age 16, proclaimed himself shah of Iran. He also adopted Shi’ism as the state religion. What was a consequence of the embracing of Shi’ism?

 
 
 

6. Safavid empire fell to the Afghan invaders in 1722. What were some similarities with the Ottoman empire that contributed to the fall of the Safavids?

 
 
 

7. Another state rose to power at the same time, in South Asia: the Mughal Empire who controlled most of India in between 1526 -1857. What was one major difference between the Mughal Empire on one hand and Ottoman and Safavid Empires on the other?

 
 
 

8. On the interior, the Empire split in smaller centers of powers under a nawab (a title given to the vizier of a nearly independent province in India), thus contributing to its decline. On the exterior, the trade privileges granted to the Europeans in exchange to naval support that initially contributed to its prosperity, eventually opened the opportunity for European intervention. What was the first of this involvement?

 
 
 

9. During this time, Islam spread in South Asia and Central Africa, through proselytism and local involvement in shipbuilding, sailing and trading that favored the spread of Islamic culture and traditions. Though there were more similarities then differences in between new Islamic centers and the its cradle, one extreme Islamic adaptation was in Acheh, a sultanate in northern Sumatra, where:

 

 
 
 

10. The southern seas, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean, were dominated by local merchants until:

 
 
 

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