Chapter 24 Quiz:

Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism, 1800 – 1870

1. After French army retreat in 1801 and being sent by the Ottoman sultan to restore the imperial power in Egypt, which was under ottoman suzerainty, Muhammad Ali seize the power and disposed the mamluks of their privileges. Then he proceeded to adopt a series of reforms. What was the most important of them?


2. At the beginning of the 19th century Ottoman Empire controlled large territories in south eastern Europe and western Middle East. Most of those territories were ruled through local representatives under the suzerainty of the ottoman sultan. As the nationalism as a movement grew all over Europe, so the unrest in these territories that wanted to shake the ottoman rule. What was such an unrest and what was the result?


3. One of the causes of Ottoman empire’s decline was the lack of modern reforms to keep up with the rest of the world. The reforms were harder to make because it meant to change an order that was liked by elites, among those was dissolving the Janissary corps who claimed so many privileges. Other reforms were aimed of making changes in the civil and commercial code of law as well as reducing the power of the religious leaders. What was the name of this restructuring process?


4. At the south eastern border of Europe, two empires fought for the control of the provinces under Ottoman suzerainty, that are now part of Romania: the Russian Empire and the Ottoman empire. In 1853 Russia invaded those territories. A war erupted that lasted to 1856 and it is known as the Crimea War. Why is this war important?


5. Bordering some of the ottoman Empire’s land, was Russian Empire. Those two often fought for control of the frontier territories, their only appeal to the nationalities that lived there was that of religion, Russian empire claimed to protect the Christian orthodoxs and on the other hand, Ottoman claiming the Muslims. What were some similarities between the two empires?


6. Among those to oppose modernization was a group of intellectuals known as Slavophiles that advocated for orthodox faith with the tsar as the absolute ruler of an idyllic peasant life of all the Slavs in the empire. What do we call the doctrine adopted by those Slavophiles?


7. Not all the elites opposed the reformation that some tsars wanted to make. But they could not decide to a common agenda. So, when Alexander I died in December 1825 a coup took place. What is the name of it and how did it end?


8. In the early 1800s, European and Americans made a fortune by smuggling opium into China. The drug ravaged the country at all levels of society. When the Chinese authorities tried to stop this practice, by banning the import and distribution of the drug, Britain, who was the most affected, started a war called the Opium War (1939 – 1842) and won. What was the result?



9. For 14 years, China struggled in a violent civil war called the Taiping Rebellion (1850 – 1864) which ended in the favor of the Qing dynasty aided by France and Britain. What were its causes?


10. After the rebellion, China struggled to adopt reforms that lax social condition and keep the unity of the army or the loyalty of the governors. As a result, its central power disintegrated into several large power zones. Who were the real winners?


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