Chapter 16 Quiz:

Transformation in Europe, 1500 – 1750

1. In 1519, in Wittenberg, Germany, a young priest called Martin Luther started a powerful religious movement. He denounced the selling of indulgences and the corruption of the Latin Church and insisted that salvation comes from faith in Jesus and not in the pope. What do we call this religious movement?


2. To resist the Protestant Reformation, a counter movement started, first within the Latin Christian Church, then extended to the western states. Called Catholic reformation, this counter reform had as a result:


3. While the heads of states were using religion to consolidate their power, smaller community were engaging in widespread which hunt – people accused of using pagan rituals to invoke the evil. Historians estimated that 100.000 people, most of them women, were tried and condemned of practicing witchcraft. What of the following statements is true?


4. The medieval world was guided by the Bible and the few works of ancient Greeks, especially the philosopher Aristotle and the mathematician Pythagoras. Bible taught that God created Earth and the heavens, and The Greeks thought that the celestial bodies were perfect spheres that revolved around the earth. But as people liked to look at the sky, they noticed things were a little different. Who was the first astronomer to challenge the traditional view and start what we call now the Scientific Revolution?


5. The new findings challenged the religious views of that time but neither the Church, nor other institution could stop the spread of the new Copernicans ideas. In England, Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton contributed new theories on mathematics, physics and astronomy. What other innovation was sparked by the Copernicans that we still use today?



6. The Enlightenment, a philosophical movement born on the scientific revolution’s ideas, sought to reform society by discovering rational laws for social behavior. While both the Catholic and the Protestant church opposed enlightenment ideas, some European monarchs adopted it. Why?


7. With the growth of the urban life, a new class of wealthy people rise as well. This class is called the bourgeoisie. How did members of this class make their wealth?


8. Early modern Europe displayed a great political diversity, ranging from city-states and republics in Italy, to principalities and federalism in Holy Roman Empire, and centralization of monarchies in France and England. What is the name of the most enduring dynasty that was at the head of the Holy Roman Empire for almost 400 years?


9. What was the cause of the English Civil War (1642 – 1649) in England that ended with the execution of the king and, later, with the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the adoption of the Bill of Rights?


10. In this time, the struggle for dominance over Europe and the new founded colonies of the Americas increased the demand for money to sustain an army and adopt military improvements. As a result, a new balance of power emerged with England, France, Austria, Prussia and Russia as the major players. Name the least one major conflict that contributed to the new balance of power.


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