Chapter 4 Quiz: Iran and Greece, 1000 – 30 B.C.E

1. The Persian Empire raised to power in between 550 and 530 B.C.E, when a Persian chieftain conquered the kingdoms of Media, Lydia and Babylon. What is the name of this chieftain?


2. Darius I took the power in 522 B.C.E. To govern such vast and diverse empire, he divided it into 20 provinces ruled by a governor from that particular place but tightly connected to the royal family. The governor collected taxes, maintained and patrolled royal roads, build and maintained an army and garrisons and reported directly to the king. What is the name of this position that often was handed down in the family?


3. Under Darius I, Persians adopted Zoroastrianism, as main religion which emphasized god’s (Ahuramazda) choice of the king. Also, Zoroastrianism called on people to always tell the truth, have respect for nature, and live in purity. It is said that this religion had major influence on:



4. Geography and environment played a major role in Greek history for its civilization rose in a landscape that had reduced farmable land, which made it hard to obtain crops, a lot of mountains, which made inland travel difficult, little rain, again bad for crops, but a lot of seashore. As a result:


5. In a difficult geographical environment as Greece, one major development was the city-state, or polis. There were many city-states in Greece that had major similarities (ex: acropolis, agora, the marketplace) but also differences (some of them were democratic, others were oligarchic). What was the role of the king of Greece?


6. What was the result of growing population in Greece, since they had very limited land that can sustain the growth?


7. The most powerful city-states in Archaic and Classical Greece were Athens and Sparta. While Athens grew to be a democracy, Sparta became to be a military oligarchy. What is one of the differences between the two political systems?


8. Persian Wars were military conflicts between Persian Empire and the Greek city-states stretching between 499 and 479 B.C.E, over control of the region, and concluded with Greece victory. What was the major force that contributed to this victory?


9. In Classical Greece, Athens was the center of great intellectual movements where Socrates investigated the human nature, philosophy was taught in Plato’s Academy and Aristotle collected and categorized a vast array of knowledge ranging from politics to zoology. But all this truly literary achievement wouldn’t have been possible without this major Greek development:


10. In classical Athens, some people, called citizens, enjoyed a large number of privileges among which the right to vote and debate in public affairs, own land and slaves, but also had duties such as pay taxes, maintain military equipment and respond the call to arm. Which category of population were considered citizens?


11. In the mid-4th century B.C.E., Philip II of the small kingdom of Macedonia, took over all Greece and established military control under the Confederacy of Corinth. His son, Alexander the Great, in an unprecedented conquest, took over Persian Empire all the way to the Indus Valley. Even if short lived, Alexander the Great empire had long consequences, because the lands conquered came under the Greek cultural influence. Today, we call that period (323 to 30 B.C.E):


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