Chapter 23 Quiz:

State Building and Economic Transformation in the Americas, 1800 – 1890

1. What European events caused unrest in American Spanish colonies in the first quarter of the 19th century?



2. After the first unrests were repressed, more movements took place in the colonies, this time their objective was to govern themselves as a nation, thus gaining independence from Spain. Who was the most important military leader of the rebels that fought in Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia and defeated Spain in 1824 and who also supported the emancipation of slaves so he can build an army?


3. In Mexico, the wealthiest of the Spanish colonies, the revolution for independence who started in 1810 was led by two priests, Miguel Hidalgo Y Costilla, and Jose Maria Morelos, both being executed by loyalists (colonial officials loyal to the Spanish). Did the movement for independence stopped?


4. Unlike Mexico and other South American colonies, Brazil was a Portuguese colony. When Napoleon invaded Portugal, the king of Portugal, John VI fled to Brazil. Even though he later returned to Portugal, he left his son to govern the colony and prevent any unrest. What did his son, Pedro I do?


5. The revolutionary movement have given birth to personalist leaders –  charismatic individuals that grow a fallowing and gain power only to use it for their own purpose. One such leader declared Venezuelan independence and then became a dictator. Another leader, of the United States, used his presidential authority to weaken the Congress and the Supreme Court. What are the names of these two leaders?


6. Following the revolutions and the independence, many states in Americas faced political unrest, either by internal forces opposing the government in power, either from foreign intervention. One such example is Mexico. What was the result?


7. After the North American revolution, a new wave of settlers occupied land previously guaranteed to the native people causing conflicts like the War of 1812. In Mexico, a rebellion of the Maya people, known as Caste War, erupted when large farmers forced Maya out of their land. What was the result of those conflicts?


8. Slavery persisted in many of the American countries long after those states have gained independence. United States only ended slavery after a civil war and Brazil only in 1888, being the last state to do it. What was the name of the movement started by men and women all over the globe that militated for freeing the slaves and ending slavery?


9. As the new technologies of the industrial revolution in Europe spread to Americas, some countries experienced an economic growth making progress in industries such of mining, or expanding the railroads system, but others fell behind, being labeled as economically underdeveloped countries. What is the only Latin American country that did not fell into the last category?



10. The population growth and rapid urbanization, plus the introduction of new technologies increased activities such logging, grazing, and mining. What was the impact of these activities?


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